Cotton is traditionally the largest natural fiber used in clothing. Today, India has the second largest cotton production in the world. There are many varieties of cotton produced in my country, most of which are staple fibers, which are very suitable for hand spinning. We no longer grow staple fiber varieties, but still produce large amounts of cotton for domestic use and export.   

The massive use of pesticides has led to many problems and there is now a shift towards organic farming. In the past, over 500 indigenous cotton varieties were grown in India. Today we grow fewer than 20 varieties.

The yarn is a long, continuous section of intertwined fibers. The length of the cotton staple determines the thickness of the yarn and this is called the “yarn count”. The standard length measurement for cotton yarn is "bulk". Coil yarns are commonly used in the manufacture of handlooms, as opposed to tapered yarns, which are used in the manufacture of rolling mills.  

The skein yarn is from 2 coarse to 120 fine, depending on the length of the cotton fiber. Spinning is the process of converting textile fibers and threads into yarns. For thousands of years, people have been making natural fibers by hand.   

Spinning today includes many different methods and machines, depending on the type of yarn being produced. There are two types of yarn used in the loom: hand-spun yarn and other yarn. Even today, natural fibers such as cotton, wool and silk are mainly used in the manufacture of hand looms. The process of converting cotton fiber to yarn is complex, and the strength and fineness of the yarn depend on the length of the staple fiber and the skill of the spinner. The yarn can be spun by hand in two ways: cotton fiber by hand, cotton ribbon mechanically, and then by hand spun yarn in various thicknesses.    

Shrikakulam, located on the northern coast of Andhra, remains the only hand-spun ribbon in the country where fine yarns are spun at speeds of up to 100 seconds. The yarn is less stressed during hand spinning. Hand spinning wages increase Hadi's value.    

Mechanical spinning in the West began with the industrial revolution of the 17th century. During the period of colonial rule, the spinning of the British was introduced in our country.    

The large spinning mill was originally located in Mumbai, but later most of its operations moved to parts of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Today, this yarn is widely used by weavers all over the country. The Bombay Spinning Mill in Tardeo, Mumbai was one of the first factories established in India in 1854 to supply yarn to local hand-weavers.    

Fabrics can be dyed into yarns or by fabric and clothing stages. Dyeing of skeins is a predominant practice in the south of India, as opposed to the north, where fabric is dyed for the development of prints in the handicraft sector. The dyeing process involves "scraping" to remove the natural oils and dirt present in the cotton, after which natural or chemical dyes are used to dye. Hand dyeing is done in and around weaving villages by local specialists.   

The saree used to be very dull. The color was used mainly in borders and pallu. 

The discovery of the structure of benzene in Europe in 1865 marked the transition from natural dyes to chemical dyes. The chemical dyes used today—direct dyes, sulfur dyes, Napoleon dyes, vat dyes, and reactive dyes—were developed between 1878 and 1956. They offer a wide range of colors, easy application and strength suitable for modern use.   

Dyes made from natural materials such as bark, flowers, leaves, and minerals are called natural dyes. Vegetable dyes are a sub-category of natural dyes. They are colors that are completely extracted from plant materials. The stain is usually a mineral, which is used to fix the dye on the cotton. Although some colors are sensitive to sunlight, all natural dyes usually produce long-lasting colors.    

Indigo dyeing was one of the first professions to specialize in the production of fabrics. Indigo dye is obtained from the plant Indigofera tinctoria. It does not contain harsh chemicals and toxic metals. It can be used to color any natural fibers.    

Indigo cotton yarn is dyed in parts of Asia and Africa. The use of indigo dye dates back to 2000 BC.    

In this case, the yarn of the skein is wound on bobbins. This is the first step in converting skein yarn to linear yarn. The yarn dyed in skeins is wound on bobbins with the help of the chakra. This process allows the yarn to be lengthened for weaving. Bobbin winding is done by women in weaver families.    

Typically 19 to 20 spools are required for a "base" length of five 34 meter sarees. A warp is a set of threads attached to a loom lengthwise before starting to weave. Tacking is the process of creating a warp thread that runs along the length of the fabric, through which the "weft" threads are filled to make the fabric. For a 46 "wide fabric, more than 3,200 individual threads run through the warp of the fabric.    

Usually 1.96 550 yards of yarn are straightened by winding them on a round warping drum. Traditionally, the length and width of the base vary according to the curtain style of the saree in a particular area. The warp yarn is stretched on two warp beams, and a natural binder is used to increase the strength of the yarn and lubricate it to withstand harsh weaving conditions.   

In most weaving mills, rice / porridge starch is blended with coconut / peanut butter and applied as a “chopped” material. Calibration is carried out by weavers or specialists in the countryside. Since this activity is carried out on the street, it is called road sizing. The brush used in the sizing process is made on site from an available natural material such as palmyra fiber.    

Individual warp threads are pulled through bends through a row of reeds and tied to beams located at both ends of the loom. The hilds divide the warp into two pieces that allow the weft threads to pass between them. Cages and stripes are created by segmenting warp and weft yarns. For weaving motifs, the looms are equipped with dobby or jacquard that help lift the warp segments into the weft. The women attach each thread to the existing warp thread with an ash tree.    

A weft skein is wound around the pier. Then the weft thread is fed into the hook. The preparation of the weft is done on the chakra, applying the correct tension to the thread with your fingertips. Usually women do it. Pirn is a small coil.   

A hook is a device used in weaving to move the weft yarn back and forth between the warp threads. The color change in weave creates “burnt” colors that make the fabric shine and vibrant. The weaving process is the interweaving of two series of yarns: warp and weft. The equipment that facilitates this weaving is the loom. A "hand loom" is a loom that is used to weave fabrics without the use of electricity.    

The manipulation of the warp lifting pedals must be synchronized with the start of the shuttle carrying the weft thread. A perfect plot requires a mind-body alignment. Depending on the complexity of the design, the weaver weaves from half a meter to five meters of fabric per day. 

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